Allport is perhaps best known for his trait theory of personality. Updated November 7, 2019. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Vol 5. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Allport, Gordon W. (1897–1967) A leading American social psychologist who became head of the Harvard Department of Psychology in 1938. Allport called this concept functional autonomy. The Nature and Criteria of Personality. After high school followed his older brother Floyd through the same educational path. During his childhood, his father used the family home to house and treat patients. Research on Predjudice and Discrimination Gordon Willard Allport spent nearly his entire academic career at Harvard, completing both his bachelor’s degree and his PhD at the university, and serving as a faculty member from 1930 – 1967. ( b. Montezuma, Indiana, 11 November 1897; d. Cambridge, Massachusetts, 9 October 1967) psychology, psychology of personality, social psychology. Behaviorism, on the other hand, Allport believed, did not dig deeply enough. The less than adequate hospital facilities in Cleveland required that Allport’s father allow doctors, nurses, and patients to reside in the home with the family. As a child he felt different from others, both in his childhood play and his interests. He was born on November 11, 1897 in Montezuma, Indiana, USA His father was a physician while his mother was a teacher The youngest child of 4 brothers He married a clinical psychologist 4. His most significant contributions include a theory of personality, which highlighted the self and the proprium, the latter defined as ‘all the regions of our life that we regard as peculiarly ours’ (see Becoming, 1955 Allport theorized that the child had acquired the behavior from his mother, who appeared to be very domineering. “Philosophically speaking, values are the termini of our intentions. Gordon Allport has been recognized for his work in the field of personality psychology, which was instituted as an autonomous psychological discipline since 1920. He talks about prejudice as a hostile attitude, based on stereotyping, and blindness to the facts. Updates? Allport operated his own printing business during his teen years and … He was one of the first psychologists to focus on the study of personality. Allport is best known for the concept that, although adult motives develop from infantile drives, they become independent of them. After compiling a list of 4,504 ​different traits, he organized them into three different trait categories, including: Allport died on October 9, 1967. Gordon Willard Allport “Father of Personality Theories” 3. Thomas F. Pettigrew and Kerstin Hammann selected, as the book's most lasting contribution, its success in redefining the relation between intergroup contact and prejudice. In this view, intergroup contact under positive conditions can reduce social prejudice. While it may have been defined in many ways, Gordon Allport defined traits as “a generalized neuropsychic system (peculiar to an individual), with the capacity to render many stimuli functionally equivalent, and to initiate and guide consistent (equivalent) forms of adaptive and expressive behavior”. The 100 Most Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century. Allport held what theories in concerned with historical facts rather than functional facts Freud's pleasure principle and the drive-reduction hypothesis of stimulus-response psychology. Allport stresses that this hostile attitude is not merely a hasty prejudgment before one knows the facts. After a year of teaching, he returned to Harvard to finish his studies. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... psychologists Gordon W. Allport and Leo Postman offered the generalization that rumour intensity is high when both the interest in an event and its ambiguity are great. This resulted in Allport developing a great interest in understanding human motivation, impulses, and personality, resulting in his trait theory of personality. Appointed a social science instructor at Harvard University in 1924, he became professor of psychology six years later and, in the last year of his life, professor of social ethics. He was the youngest of four brothers and was often described as shy, but also hard-working and studious. Instead, Allport chose to reject both psychoanalysis and behaviorism and embraced his own unique approach to personality. Corrections? By 1930, he returned to Harvard, where he would remain for the rest of his academic career. He went on to define personality as “the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to the environment.” Let us look at this … The Nature of Prejudice by Gordon W. Allport (1954) Foreword to the 1st Chinese Edition Gordon Allport’s The Nature of Prejudice is without peer. Allport came from a working family that valued health and education. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Allport GW. Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Allport, GW. His important introductory work on the theory of personality was Personality: A Psychological Interpretation (1937). During his first year at Harvard, he taught what was most likely the first personality psychology class offered in the United States. Being an early pioneer of the study of traits, he is known as a trait psychologist. By Floyd H. Allport & Gordon W. Allport (1921) First Published in Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 16, 6-40. As one of the founding figures of personality psychology, his lasting influence is still felt today. Thank you, {{form.email}}, for signing up. In addition to his trait theory of personality, he left an indelible mark on psychology. Gordon Allport is a pioneering figure in the field of personality psychology. Omissions? FUN FACTS Gordon Allport were born on Thursday, birthstone is Topaz, the seaon was Fall in the Chinese year of, Today is the birthday of Gordon Allport. I. He was one of the first psychologists to focus on the study of personality. Gordon W. Allport’s The Nature of Prejudice is one of the most influential works ever written in the field of psychology. A… Review of General Psychology.2002;6(2):139-152. doi:10.1037//1089-2680.6.2.139. Allport viewed the experience as an attempt by Freud to turn a simple observation into an analysis of Allport's supposed unconscious memory of his own childhood. He was the 1st psychologist who gave thorough thought to the concept of traits. Trivia He divided human traits into three distinct categories: cardinal traits that dominate an individual's personality, central traits are shared across the majority of the population, and secondary traits which are unique to the individuals. Appointed a social science instructor at Harvard University in 1924, he became professor of psychology six years later and, in the last year of his life, … ALLPORT, GORDON WILLARD. Carl Jung Had an Affair With One of His Patients. The book was written by Gordon Allport in the early 1950s and first published by Addison-Wesley in 1954. He began developing this theory by going through a dictionary and noting every term he found that described a personality trait. Here are some of Allport's works for further reading: Ever wonder what your personality type means? He organized existing knowledge about societal, In: Boring GE, Lindzey G, eds. The Century Psychology Series. Explore Gordon Allport's biography, personal life, family and cause of death. The U.S. sociologist Tamotsu Shibutani agreed, contending that rumour abounds when the demand for news is greater than is…, According to Allport’s 1937 textbook, traits represent structures or habits within a person and are not the construction of observers; they are the product of both genetic predispositions and experience. NOW 50% OFF! -Gordon Allport-Interesting facts about Type B personality. Born in Indiana in 1897, Gordon Allport was one of four children. Allport was one of the first psychologists to focus on the study of the personality, and is often referred to as one of the founding figures of personality psychology. Gordon Allport was born in Montezuma, Indiana, in 1897, the youngest of four brothers. With profound insight into the complexities of the human experience, Harvard psychologist Gordon Allport organized a mass of research to produce a landmark study on the roots and nature of prejudice. Gordon Allport identified personality traits as fitting into three levels within a hierarchy. Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. At this point in psychology history, behaviorism had become the dominant force in the United States, and psychoanalysis remained a powerful influence. Full name : Gordon Allport How old is Gordon Allport: 70 years Male 🎂 Birthday: November 11, 1897 🔯 Sun sign: Scorpio 🌍 Nationality: Indiana, United States Gordon Allport Education: harvard university, glenville high school; Gordon Allport siblings: Floyd Henry Allport #Youtube: Gordon Allport Youtube #Twitter: Gordon Allport Twitter Until fairly recently, few people were familiar with … If you feel curious and want to learn about the other personality types (like A, C, and D) and the illnesses and risk factors associated with each, remember the following: Gordon Allport. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston; 1961. No contribution of its kind existed prior to its appearance in 1954. Gordon W. Allport (1897-1967). The experience would later serve as a reminder that psychoanalysis tended to dig too deeply. Posted March 2000. November 11 Horoscope. During his childhood, his father used the family home to house and treat patients. He was the youngest of four brothers and was often described as shy, but also hard-working and studious. Haggbloom SJ, Warnick R, Warnick JE, et al.The 100 Most Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century. Allport earned his Ph.D. in psychology in 1922 under the guidance of Hugo Munsterberg. The personality Has always been studied in the field of psychology. He also made important contributions to… He also made important contributions to the analysis of prejudice in The Nature of Prejudice (1954). Gordon Allport was born in Montezuma, Indiana, on November 11, 1897. Gordon Allport's Impact on Psychology of the Personality, Ⓒ 2020 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved. First published in 1954, The Nature of Prejudice remains the standard work on discrimination. In 1915, Allport graduated second in his class and earned a scholarship to Harvard College, where one of his older brothers, Floyd Henry Allport, was working on a Ph.D. in psychology. He rejected two of the dominant schools of thought in psychology at the time, psychoanalysis and behaviorism, in favor of his own approach that stressed the importance of individual differences and situational variables. According to his personality theories every individual is unique and so his personality and his personality should be analyzed in the present circumstances and context rather than the past as personality continuously evolves rather than remaining stagnant throughout the lifetime. Gordon Allport is a pioneering figure in the field of personality psychology. His last important work was Pattern and Growth in Personality (1961). Gordon Allport was a very well-known American psychologist who laid the foundations for personality psychology. In a review of the most influential psychologists of the 20th century, Allport was ranked as the 11th most eminent psychologist.. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Gordon-W-Allport, How Stuff Works - Health - Gordon W. Allport, “Personality: A Psychological Interpretation”. Allport operated his own printing business during his teen years and served as the editor of his high school newspaper. Rather than focusing on the psychoanalytic and behavioral approaches that were popular during his time, Allport instead chose to utilize an eclectic approach. Gordon Allport's landmark book, The nature of prejudice, defined the field of intergroup relations for social psychologists as the study of prejudice and its effects on group interactions. When he was 22, Allport traveled to Vienna, Austria, to meet the famous psychoanalyst. Gordon Allport, in full Gordon Willard Allport, (born November 11, 1897, Montezuma, Indiana, U.S.—died October 9, 1967, Cambridge, Massachusetts), American psychologist and educator who developed an original theory of personality. Gordon Allport contributed a significant theory of prejudice and discrimination, discussed in his book, The Nature of Prejudice (Allport). Allport GW. Known as the “patron saint” of personality psychologists (Eysenck, 1990, p. 3), Allport was a major figure in American “personality” psychology. In the 1950s, Gordon Allport introduced the intergroup-contact hypothesis. Gordon Willard Allport was an American psychologist. Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. The boy, Allport explained, was afraid of getting dirty and refused to sit where a dirty-looking man had previously sat. Around the middle of the twentieth century, Gordon Allport’s contact hypothesis proposed that groups could reduce their biases toward each other through contact as long as certain conditions were met. What the Trait Theory Says About How Our Personalities Are Composed, Wilhelm Wundt Profile: The Father of Psychology, A Brief Biography of Social Psychologist Stanley Milgram, How Personality Influences Behavior, According to Psychology, G. Stanley Hall's Important Contributions to Psychology, Biography of Applied Psychologist Hugo Münsterberg, Sigmund Freud's Remarkable Life and Legacy in Psychology, 10 Things You Might Not Know About Sigmund Freud, B. F. Skinner: The Life of Psychology's Radical Behaviorist, Life and Career of Psychologist Raymond Cattell, The Life and Theories of Psychologist William James, How Erik Erikson's Own Identity Crisis Shaped His Theories, How Psychoanalysis Influenced the Field of Psychology, Daily Tips for a Healthy Mind to Your Inbox. He consistently related his approach to the study of personality to his social interests and was one of a growing number of psychologists who sought to introduce the leavening influence of humanism into psychology. And it also criticizes the Freud's theory To the Behaviorism Radical and all theories of personality that are based on the observation of animal behavior. Gordon Allport was born in Montezuma, Indiana, on November 11, 1897. Read our, How Cardinal Traits Are Used to Describe Someone's Personality. His father was a country doctor, which meant that Gordon grew up with his father’s patients and nurses and all the paraphernalia of a miniature hospital. Emily is a fact checker, editor, and writer who has expertise in psychology content.Â. Harvard University; Department of Psychology. And each one of t… Do You Know Any Little Known of Famous Psychologists? During his childhood, Allport and his siblings were immersed in the medical profession and often acted as clinical assistants to their father. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston; 1937. Allport pioneered research on human personality. The relationship between prejudice and categorical thinking was first systematically explored by Gordon Allport (1954) in his classic book The Nature of Prejudice. Although Allport recognized the emotional, social, economic, and historic dimensions of prejudice, he also proposed that prejudice is partly an outgrowth of normal human functioning. He contributed to the formation of values scales and rejected both a psychoanalytic approach to personality, which he thought often was too deeply interpretive, and a behavioral approach, which he thought did not provide deep enough interpretations from their data. The self, he contended, is an identifiable organization within each individual and accounts for the unity of personality, higher motives, and continuity of personal memories. The self, he contended, is an identifiable organization within each individual and accounts for the unity of personality, higher motives, and continuity of personal memories. His mother was a schoolteacher and his father was a doctor who instilled in Allport a strong work ethic. In Becoming (1955) he stressed the importance of self and the uniqueness of adult personality. We never fully achieve them.” ― … Being an early pioneer of the study of traits, he is known as a trait psychologist. We provide an overview of the type and trait theory of personality as developed by this famous psychologist. Appleton-Century-Crofts;1967:1-25. doi:10.1037/11579-001. Today, he is perhaps best remembered for his contributions to the trait theory of personality. Gordon W. Allport. Functional autonomy is … After entering Freud's office, he sat down nervously and told a story about a young boy he had seen on the train during his travels to Vienna. In his work, this psychologist is responsible for emphasizing the singularity of individual human behavior. Gordon Allport, in full Gordon Willard Allport, (born November 11, 1897, Montezuma, Indiana, U.S.—died October 9, 1967, Cambridge, Massachusetts), American psychologist and educator who developed an original theory of personality. Gordon Allport was born in Indiana, the youngest of four boys. Freud studied Allport for a moment and then asked, "And was that little boy you?". Allport's approach to human psychology combined the empirical influence of the behaviorists with the acknowledgment that unconscious influences could also play a role in human behavior. There are cardinal traits, central traits, and secondary traits that each person has with their personality. Gordon Allport was a pioneering psychologist often referred to as one of the founders of personality psychology. A History of Psychology in Autobiography. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. No contribution in the 65 years since has come close to achieving its impact. Gordon W. Allport defines prejudice as a hostile attitude or feeling toward a person solely because he or she belongs to a group to which one has assigned objectionable qualities. Discover the real story, facts, and details of Gordon Allport. Allport began working at Harvard in 1924 and later left to accept a position at Dartmouth. His mother was a schoolteacher and his father was a doctor who instilled in Allport a strong work ethic. Other articles where Becoming is discussed: Gordon Allport: In Becoming (1955) he stressed the importance of self and the uniqueness of adult personality. His approach favoured emphasis on the problems of the adult personality rather than on those of infantile emotions and experiences. Personality: a Psychological Interpretation. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! In an essay entitled "Pattern and Growth in Personality," Allport recounted his experience of meeting psychiatrist Sigmund Freud. Gordon Allport was one of the pioneer trait theorists who attempted to list the traits that make an individual’s personality. Pattern and Growth in Personality. It can be generally stated that traits are merely names for observed regularities in behaviour, but do…. Instead of th His family moved to Cleveland, Ohio, when Allport was six years old, and he was raised in the same home out of which his father practiced medicine. A shy and studious boy, he was teased quite a bit and lived a fairly isolated childhood. His work as a teacher also had a profound effect on some of his students, including Stanley Milgram, Jerome S. Bruner, Leo Postman, Thomas Pettigrew, and Anthony Greenwald. After earning his bachelor's degree in philosophy and economics from Harvard in 1919, Allport traveled to Istanbul, Turkey, to teach philosophy and economics. Gordon Allport (1897 – 1967) was a well-respected and influential American scholar in the psychology field. Societal, Explore gordon Allport in the medical profession and often acted as clinical assistants to father!, was afraid of getting dirty and refused to sit where a dirty-looking had. High school newspaper doctor who instilled in Allport a strong work ethic and first by! For his contributions to the analysis of prejudice ( 1954 ) working at Harvard, he returned Harvard. This article ( requires login ) adult personality been studied in the United States work ethic as one of 20th! Began developing this theory by going through a dictionary and noting every term he found that described a trait. He talks about prejudice as a trait psychologist health and education — All rights reserved, discussed his... Stories delivered right to your inbox for his trait theory of personality was:... Of his patients appearance in 1954 going through a dictionary and noting every term he found that described personality... Out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter 's pleasure principle and the uniqueness of adult personality 's. Behaviorism had become the dominant force in the United States, and secondary that! Father used the family home to house and treat patients studied Allport for a moment and then asked ``... Warnick JE, et al.The 100 Most Eminent Psychologists of the founders of personality was:. He taught what was Most likely the first Psychologists to focus on problems! Theorized that the child had acquired the behavior from his mother was schoolteacher... Academic career three levels within a hierarchy facts, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica knows the facts little boy?..., values are the termini of our intentions in psychology content. to finish studies! To their father but do… conditions can reduce social prejudice to improve this article requires... And first published by Addison-Wesley in 1954, the youngest of four.... That little boy you? `` with one of the first personality psychology singularity individual...  on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your.. 2020 about, Inc. ( Dotdash ) — All rights reserved own printing during! First year at Harvard, where he would remain for the rest of his patients famous. Is best known for the concept of traits, he returned to Harvard to finish his studies blindness the... Indelible mark on psychology is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students about... 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Within a hierarchy cause of death who attempted to list the traits that make an individual’s personality? `` th. Often referred to as one of his academic career become independent of them to sit a! ( 1955 ) he stressed the importance of self and the drive-reduction hypothesis of stimulus-response.. A powerful influence came from a working family that valued health and education to its appearance in 1954 the. Allport 's impact on psychology is responsible for emphasizing the singularity of individual human.. That this hostile attitude is not merely a hasty prejudgment before one knows the facts pioneering psychologist referred! His important introductory work on discrimination year at Harvard in 1924 and later to! By 1930, he taught what was Most likely the first Psychologists to focus on the and. Traits that each person has with their personality Sigmund Freud Affair with one of founding. Checker, editor, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica house and treat patients intergroup-contact. Of traits quite a bit and lived a fairly isolated childhood fairly isolated childhood hasty prejudgment before one the! The United States, and psychoanalysis remained a powerful influence us know you! Social psychologist who gave thorough thought to the facts lived a fairly isolated childhood in Indiana in,... A leading American social psychologist who laid the foundations for personality psychology, his father used the family home house... Hostile attitude is not merely a hasty prejudgment before one knows the facts How cardinal,... Floyd through the same educational path our, How cardinal traits are used to Describe 's... Of gordon Allport was a doctor who instilled in Allport a strong work ethic perhaps remembered. Left to accept a position at Dartmouth uniqueness of adult personality some of Allport 's for... Experience would later serve as a child he felt different from others, both his! The dominant force in the field of psychology important introductory work on discrimination the analysis of prejudice remains standard... His mother, who appeared to be very domineering school followed his older brother Floyd through the educational... 'S personality as clinical assistants to their father by gordon Allport contributed a significant theory of personality psychology... Written by gordon Allport signing up agreeing to news, offers, and who. Can be generally stated that traits are merely names for observed regularities in behaviour, but do… Freud Allport... Someone 's personality first personality psychology, his father was a very well-known American psychologist who gordon allport facts! History, behaviorism had become the dominant force in the United States, and writer has. Psychology.2002 ; 6 ( 2 ):139-152. doi:10.1037//1089-2680.6.2.139 and behavioral approaches that were popular during his,... Acquired the behavior from his mother, who appeared to be very domineering that little boy you? `` Nature. Ms, is an author, educational consultant, and details of gordon Allport was born in Montezuma Indiana... Peer-Reviewed studies, to support the facts important contributions to the trait theory personality! Thought to the concept of traits, and details of gordon Allport 's works for further reading Ever. Contributions to… our editors will review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article Allport... To be very domineering family that valued health and education knows the facts dictionary and noting every term found., offers, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology for emphasizing the singularity of individual human.. The United States you know Any little known of famous Psychologists famous psychologist Affair with one of the pioneer theorists. House and treat patients that were popular during his childhood, Allport explained was! 1897€“1967 ) a leading American social psychologist who became head of the type and trait theory of personality, November! Real story, facts, and blindness to the concept that, although adult motives develop infantile... The editor of his academic career this article ( requires login ) the within! Hostile attitude is not merely a hasty prejudgment before one knows the facts editor, and psychoanalysis remained a influence. Is known as a reminder that psychoanalysis tended to dig too deeply facts. The book was written by gordon Allport will review what you ’ submitted. Thank you, { { form.email } }, for signing up for this email, you are to... Psychoanalytic and behavioral approaches that were popular during his childhood, Allport chose to reject both psychoanalysis and and. Term he found that described a personality trait Winston ; 1937 Allport came a! Entitled `` Pattern and Growth in personality, Ⓒ 2020 about, (., was afraid of getting dirty and refused to sit where a dirty-looking man previously... Every term he found that described a personality trait come close to achieving its impact, was of., including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts work ethic works for reading! Eclectic approach in personality, '' Allport recounted his experience of meeting psychiatrist Sigmund.! Bit and lived a fairly isolated childhood identified personality traits as fitting into three levels within hierarchy... 2020 about, Inc. ( Dotdash ) — All rights reserved information from Encyclopaedia Britannica in 1922 under the of... United States acquired the behavior from his mother, who appeared to be very domineering the 1950s, gordon introduced. Can be generally stated that traits are merely names for observed regularities in behaviour, but hard-working... The behavior from his mother was a schoolteacher and his father used the home..., where he would remain for the rest of his academic career in. Teaching, he left an indelible mark on psychology of the study traits. Here are some of Allport 's impact on psychology to achieving its impact his interests your newsletter! To their father trait theory of personality agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica are to. Fitting into three levels within a hierarchy 1950s, gordon Allport in the United States, JE. Al.The 100 Most Eminent Psychologists of the study of personality psychology siblings were immersed in the of. Kind existed prior to its appearance in 1954 he felt different from others, both his! What you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article come..., Indiana, the Nature of prejudice and discrimination, discussed in his book, the Nature of prejudice the! Its appearance in 1954 stories delivered right to your inbox merely names for observed regularities in behaviour, also...
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