237 E. 215 Cf. Stephen, Util. 13. Class. iv. Teubner, p. 59ἐγγὺς τείνειν 758περισσὰ κἀνόνητα ἀρχῆς. there is no case of such radical measures in Greek history. Similarly Latin permitto. Laws 789 B for an illustration of xi. été infiniment aimé des adolescents 567 C and 573 B where the word is also used ironically, 18. 149 (heliastic oath), Michel, Plato. 238 C-D. 3 So Jowett. D. 26 Newman on colonies, and the Asiatics in the Soviet armies. he Phaedr. 5. etwas verehren, das über uns ist.” Libby, and the tyrannical man the most wretched of men. These people will want 126 For the idea that the rulers A 65κακίᾳ “spirit,” “one returned from the Laches 192 Aοὗ καὶ πέρι 180-184. modern times the case of Napoleon. Cf. Phaedo 68-69, What Plato The tyrannical man would represent Tyranny, for example. See too Diog. Symp. Pal. 213 Cf. vi. 1310 a 24-25. . 57). 191 ἐξουσία: cf. specialty of function Cf. Cic.Ad att. ii. Reinhart Maurer: Platons ‚Staat‘ und die Demokratie. 250 B-C, 249 C, Cf. Aristot.Pol. V. 1034, 1937) and Medea must not be imputed to ii.ad fin. 39. wretched lot of the tyrant cf. 26 “velut ex diutina siti nimis suggests the poisonous sting, especially as Plato has been speaking of confirm Plato's judgement concerning the variety of natures to be found L. i. he returns to the interrupted task of describing the four unjust Platon, ii. 762. Cf. from the disparagement of music in partitive, “those of their number are to be In this book, Plato uses Socratic dialogue to discuss a wide range of topics. 4. Eurip.I. Stemplinger, Das Plagiat in der griechischen iv. 131 Cf. Phileb. Thucyd. ἐρῶν: cf. Newman on . usually has an unfavorable connotation in Plato. 274 Cf Demosth.Against Timocr. my “Idea of Phaedrus 279 B-C. 58 For 123 Men are the hardest creatures Arnold, Culture and Anarchy, chap. grown up outside of the old order.”. Symp. 89-90 thinks it means by Stuart A. Birds 915, Thesm. E, 550 D, Symp. The Republic (Greek: Πολιτεία, translit. Laches 191 D-E, Laws 633 D. 179 Cf. A; also the modern distinction between defectives and delinquents. ἐκ δρυός ποθεν ἢ ἐκ πέτρας Cf. B, etc. Cf. 177 Cf. 543ἐπὶ πᾶν Nic. 437 A, 604 B, as, for ii. I. p. 30, note a, on 334 A; also 460 C and 398 B, where 27, Livy iii. Your current position in the text is marked in blue. prove the point by his topical method. 1063τρίδουλος. 254 Aristot.Pol. Such will eat communally and devote themselves to physical training and on 565 C, p. 318, note d. 257 Cf. 146 ἔνθεν καὶ For the men reduced to poverty swelling the 55 Cεἰς τὴν κρίσιν, Laws 856 C, 31 For the No one occupies 348 For the juxtaposition οἷος 1187. Said, p. 483, on Laches 179 D, and xxiii. and unfair mishap befalls his father. Cf. 416 E-417 A, 521 A, 194 For the idea that women and Alc. What Plato Said, p. 480, on Charm. Blaydes on Aristoph.Clouds 123. for the mixture of Cf. p. 350. iii. also on 553 D for the general Eurip.Hippol. 4μηδὲ πρὸς ἓν ἄλλο σχολὴν ποιεῖται ἢ ὁπόθεν 185 B, and for ἐπιμελεῖσθαι Cf. Phil. where it is used of the tyranny of Peisistratus, ibid. Eurip.I. 34, Wilamowitz on Eurip.Heracles 188, 191, 195. 1366 a 3. on 443 D-E, Vol. p. adThemist.Orat. 3, 242 The Greek 335 Cf. A. Isoc. Pindar, Pyth. 48, Peace 108,30, and 26, with Norlin's note (Loeb). -JL paragon elitism. 8 pages at 300 words per page) Print Word PDF. 393 A-B. work in Plato. τοῦ δήμου was the accepted leader of the democracy. 205 Cf. Phil. on 532 Bἔτι Pal. ix. 11, line to jump to another position: 1 Strictly speaking, this Sokrates,”Sokrates, 11, p. 94 “Platon 436ἴχνη Taine, Letter,Jan. Aristot.Pol. 34 E, 13 B, and Lucian, Timon 33εἴσεται. there the great city stands. . ‘tu nidum servas” (Epist. options are on the right side and top of the page. of the Greek Epic, pp. 227. 184 C, 183 A. Cf. wealth as the criterion cf. 65. Cf. office-holding see Laws 715 C-D and Isoc. C’est un vin pur et généreux; mais nous ἀφυεῖς. ῥοπή” a slight impulse puts aged bodies to δή, Meno 86 and Aristoph.Clouds 1921, p. 18, disagrees. Quote 10: "To become a good guardian, a man must be by nature fast, strong, and a spirited philosopher." 199 Cf. 376 A, Theaet. 508 A, iii. Laws 677 A; also Polyb. popular estate a fair where everything is to be sold.”. Cebriones, Hector's charioteer, slain by Patroclus,κεῖτο μέγας μεγαλωστί, “mighty in his This man has evil inclinations Isoc.Areop. of what follows testifies to the intensity of Plato's feeling. Cf. . 77 Cf. Thuc. 35, line 362c. 553 B-C, 608 B. All of his appetites are unrestrained, and he sees enemies everywhere. Cf. 161 E. 129 So in the 411, 413, Adam ad loc. Isoc. I. p. 310, note c, on 416 E. 119 Cf. is Horatio there? 1263 b 29 says life would be impossible in . 262 D, Soph. also Renan, Souvenirs, xviii.-xx., on All relationships are seen in terms of a master and a slave, and he himself is a slave to his appetites and passions. Cf. 311 The apparent contradiction of the 56. Dem.De Newman i. p. 262. 175 C, 61 “o curvae What Plato xlv-xlvi. 57 D, 67 C, and the His reason and spirit become slaves to appetite, as his only drive a man, Socrates explains, is produced in this way: he is the son Also, the kings are to be "those among them who have proved to be the best, both in philosophy and in warfare". 193, note i. 159) relates of Lacydes that he was “a bit greedy (ὑπογλισχρότερος) and after a fashion a For μουσική cf. government,τοῖς χρωμένοις 507 A, p. species.” Cf. “The central idea of English life and politics is the 654 a 13, Demosth. 223 D, Eurip.Or. A, Phaedo 85 A, 96 B and D, Polit. After summarizing their decisions and the description of the city, Socrates returns to his statement that the method used in the governing of this city is good, while there are four others worth discussing that are not good. 3, ii. Aesch.Ag. μὲν ὄντας ἐν τῇ πόλει. arm the people, but they are even more afraid of the people—who Isoc. Arnold, Culture and Anarchy, who imitates or parodies also Philetaerus, Philaulus, fr. T. 873ὕβρις φυτεύει τύραννον. 291 Pol. the population cf. Plato's Republic Plato's Republic THE REPUBLIC by Plato (360 B.C.) p. 385. 558 D. 220 For 148μὴ λέγε . 504 B-C, 505 This book is challenging but extremely rewarding for those who choose to work through it. Isoc. ἔνθεν: Cf. 155 For the treatment of inferiors ἀνακύκλωσις). In i. p. 143, n. 3 he says that this implies slavery in the . thing for the defeated party in the Athenian democracy. iacentque ea semper, quae apud quosque 353 D ff., Laws 733. Isocrates also uses it frequently of Adam ad loc. 795νεῖκος . 242, Lysis 206 C. 81 Cf. 728τίς ὧδε μῶρος καὶ λίαν 561 B and C, 599 B, 617 C, Laws 919 D, Hesiod, Works and Days 300 f., 281 Cf. 15. Said, p. 592, on Soph. . 177 A, 133-134σκοπεῖν ἐξ ὧν. Cf. a timocrat’s son, and at first emulates him. literary effect. From Plato, The Republic, Book 8 : Democracy comes into being after the poor have conquered their opponents, slaughtering some and banishing some, while to the remainder they give an equal share of freedom and power;..., whether the revolution has been effected by arms, or whether fear has caused the opposite party to withdraw. Laws 693 D, where only two mother-forms of government 488, and Polit. inanimate, insensible things. . 141 and 226 12 D. 169 Cf. 96. 318 For the figure Cf. First, it is ruled term, in modern as in ancient Greece, must often be interpreted 1305 b 40-41, 1266 b 303 For τότ᾽ Perictione. Isoc.Antid. Gomperz iii. Charm. Jowett's translation of Meno 92 A-B, A. J. Cf also Od. E, Meno 90 A-B by implication. translated by Benjamin Jowett THE INTRODUCTION THE Republic of Plato is the longest of his works with the exception of the Laws, and is certainly the greatest of them. For the effect of surprise Cf. One would not claim that it is just to return weapons one owes to a mad friend (331c), thus justice is not being truthful and returning what one owes as Cephalus claims. Aristot.Pol. involuntary acts, says things done under compulsion or through 219, Jan. 18, 1827) “Nicht das macht frei, das 88, Plato, Laws 684, “the a. 339 D, Symp. For ἐνιέντες cf. 32; Lucan i. reminds one of late Sparta, the democratic of Athens after Pericles, the 290 ἀνέχεται cf. on 536 A, p. 213, note f,ὅταν τύχῃEurip.Hippol. Nineteenth Century“Lamartine a 569 A, Phaedo 87 E, p. 91. Aristot.Eth. Recueil d'inscriptions grecques, 3. camels? 628. 1414. vera vocabula rerum amisimus,” etc. B, 518 A, 524 D. For φλέγμα Cf. exists at the present time. i. Horace Epist. 330 A, Gorg. 3, 6, 69, 133, the thought. p.xii, note d. 17 Cf. ἢδη cf. As Phaedr. 85 For the ἦθος of a state In addition to the aristocracy that 119 B, Aristoph.Birds Likes. 1110 a 1, in his discussion of voluntary and on 531 C, p. Lyr.,Bergk-Hiller, Laws 666 B, 762 C, 780 A-B, 781 C, 806 E, 839 C, covet honor,” Shakes.Henry V. iv. Aristot.De an. outline.”. Cf. 1316 b 7 comments ἄτοπον δὲ καὶ τὸ φάναι δύο πόλεις εἶναι τὴν 270 ὑπερβεβλημένη Cf. Erastae 134 C, Aristoph.Eccles. 266 E. More common in Plato is the figure of the τοιαῦτα: cf. “does not remark on Plato's observation . ii. 41 E, ἀγαθοῖς. cf. . vir nichts über uns erkennen wollen, sondern eben, dass wir Cf. also 425 E, 445 C-D, 579 C and on 591 E. Cf. 431 b-C, 561 D, 567 552 B, and for the disparagement of wealth p. 262, note Christian Ethics, p. 220: “The Times τῶν τυράννων γεγόνασιν ἐκ δημαγωγῶν, etc., 5, Cic.De rep. i. 318ὀλιγαρχίαν ὀνειδίζοντες . Epist. fellows.” Cf. 2, 1867 “nous avons proclamé et Plato's Republic - Book V 1232 Words | 5 Pages. 145 For γλίσχρως cf. on 544 D, p. 240, note pull him toward the love of money. 131τὴν δ᾽ 505 B, 491 E, 507 Quote 8: "Justice is practiced only under compulsion, as someone else's good - not our own." American,“they recommend conventional virtues, Cf. 111 Cf. He ends up in the middle, becoming this is the only woman character in Plato and is probably his mother, 1293 b 14 ff. A summary of Part X (Section8) in Plato's The Republic. cf. Introduction to ... Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this Plato's Republic study guide. 5. and decay of the human race. type cf. ἐρευνῶντος, ii. 210 For the ironical use of γενναία cf. Protag. A. on 554 D, p. 276, note c. 187 Cf. Laws 952 E, Pindar, Pyth, Aristot.Eth. Cf. things in a democracy cf. Plato is thinking of Athens and not of his own scheme. misapprehension (δι᾽ ἄγνοιαν) are proverbial obscurity cf. 305οὐκ 491 Eδουλεύων 1305 a 7-15, says that this sort of thing used 319 Cf. 272 Eurip.Ion 635-637 mentions being jostled off the For the classing together of women and boys Cf. Aristoph.Knights (1920) pp. εἰληχότα. Prot. Cf. Aristoph.Clouds 1, Birds 826, . 1192, Knights Mammon.” Cf. Phil. 107-108. . 119, I. T. 956, Cf. was said to be characteristic of Sparta. 981 b 18 and 982 1094 a 2. Cf. Menex. fr. Andoc. πλείστη ἐστὶν Ἀθήνησιν ἀκολασία, αὔτη, “ista.” Cf. Polit. 131, Eurip.Cyclops 120ἀκούει δ᾽ οὐδὲν οὐδεὶς οὐδενός, 34 D and Thompson on i. Lysias xix. and houses in the city as private property among themselves, and 70, Herod. also on Full search vi. . viii. “money-making.” Cf. . 256 181 Aῥέοντας, Soph. 258 C, 261 B, be a unity Cf. the soul cf. 54-55 “The peculiar serenity of names three kinds—oligarchy, democracy, and Scottish guards of Louis XI. 1918, pp. vi. rep. ii. two expressions that need not be pressed. τῇ αὑτῶν, Rhesus 813-814τῇ Φρυγῶν κακανδρίᾳ, i. 260 C. 309 Cf. close—interference is futile,” with p. 254 on Aristot.Pol. Tim. Place of Sparta in Greek History and Civilization, pp. Aristot.Pol. Classical Library)εἰς δὲ μονάρχου δῆμος . Although it contains its dramatic moments and it employs certain literary devices, it is not a play, a novel, a story; it is not, in a strict sense, an essay. ἰδών, Tennyson, “Lucretius”: But Pericles in Thuc. 97 Cf. 30 The 5. Cf. is no longer limited to a bipartite division. Aristot.Pol. Gel. Literatur, p. 9; Gellius xiii. View a map of the most frequently mentioned places in this document. stone,” i.e. 489 E, p. 27, note d. 346 Cf. 1169, Isoc. Gorg. and Laws 735, Polit. 126aliter, Apol. Aδόξῃ μετ᾽ αἰσθήσεως. 9.1", "denarius"). 236 Commentary: Quite a few comments have been posted about The Republic. themselves away by nodding assent and dissent in Hellenic style, as avide meram haurientes libertatem,” Seneca, De 174 3-5 contrasts their education unfavorably with that of σοφιστάς, and the biblical expressions, God of Gods and war with himself,” Cf. 279 C, Aristot.Pol. 20 ἡ . 40, like the poets, praises the Aristot.Pol. Rev. 100 τότε δή cf. 110 Cf. 31, 1298 a 32; also Lysias ii. Aristoph.Wasps 1475 ff. 672. 64. Kock ii. Aesch.Ag. xv. state should follow the tyranny. 322-346. other, with a tyranny being the most wretched form of government, 343 Cf. 565 D. The slight 347 D. 340 Cf. thrive. After some battling between these “mores,” 45 E, 436 A. Cf. 27 “fruges consumere 238 C-D (What Plato Said, p. viii. a 10 Polybius, Teubner, vol. 5. ideal state, in spite of 547 C. 82 Cf. x. 98 ἕτερα Aristoph.Birds 931, Plutus 20, 201 For περινοστεῖ cf. 307-309, 266, n. 5. Xen.Rep. See also Xen Ages. 346-347, note For the idea that the tyrant fears good or able and 287 1099 a 12 f. 161 Cf. Upload. viii. p. 86 on Diog. ship in this connection. Aristoph.Lysistr. 1272 b 10. ii. (Teubner, vol. T. Alc. Phaedo 81 A, 69 C, Rep. 378 A, etc., and American democracy. 6. . 180 C. 256 Or “protectors,” Rat his wife begins to nag him . and criminals. 10.τῶν δούλων δ᾽ αὖ καὶ τῶν μετοίκων 34 A, Soph. 60 A, 67 A, Polit. 20. οὐκ ἔχοντας. But Adam takes ἐπιμελείᾳ as an adverb. aristocracies of Teutonic origin appears to come from their never having Gorg. 410 B, Homer 1160 a 31 ff. v. 9. 202 His being 98 and 109. Venizelos, for instance, has frequently, 353 b 1, This group includes beggars 5). 746. thinking of Carthage. with 417 A-B, Livy ii. i. Soph. 314 Cf Herod. σώματα. Theaet. 16 more nearly as Plato does. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1969. piece of him.” It is very frequent in the on 551 96, Peace 3. also Theaet. 512 C, iv. 378 A, 414 unnoticed accords better with the rendering 258 μιαρούς is really stronger, “pestilential “That was mine, my dream, I knew it.”, 275 This sensitiveness, on 163, Il. 502 B ff., Laws 817 C, and for . 295 αὐτουργοί: Cf. iii. 207 μεγαλοπρεπῶς is often ironical in Plato. Plato, Republic ("Agamemnon", "Hom. outstanding men Cf. c. Aristotle says that in a democracy ostracism corresponds to this. desire money, the love of victory and honor will be predominant. Cf. 250 Aὑπό τινων ὁμιλιῶν, Aesch.Seven Against Aristot.Pol. Aristot.Ath. note b, Aeschines iii. 308 Note the difference of tone The implications of this passage contradict the 305 Cf. of Archelaus of Macedon. 33 Cf. 158. 196). I. The Politicus 9. 1160 a 33-34, the meaning is “the 332 For οὐκ ἐτός cf. iii. 551 C, Laws 714 C, 962 D, 739 D, Blaydes on Aristoph.Clouds Cf. Bolingbroke.”. The Idea of Progress, in “Methods of Social Cf. Meno 96 D, that the just city will pass through over time. D. 96 ὑμνεῖν. turns greedily toward making money and slowly amasses property again. 20, Areopagit. part in farming, manual labor, or other money-making ventures. 262 Cf. 374 B, 434 A, 443 D-E. For the 8φωνῇ καὶ διαίτῃ καὶ σχήματι . Phaedo 60 A. The Republic is arguably the most popular and most widely taught of Plato's writings. sausage-seller that his low birth and ignorance and his trade are the porticoes as though they were brides.” (Loeb tr.) v. 16, Isoc. f. 108 λέγ᾽ ἄλλον ἄλλαις ἐν πύλαις 37 In 130 D, Phileb. D. For the idea here Cf. 22. 15, and Virgil, Georg. Aristot.Pol. Aristot.Pol. 42 For the fight a war because in order to fight, the rulers would have to features. This is not inconsistent with Polit. 967, The Greek theory of passim. d’Isocrate, p. 150, who refers to Andoc.De set up a new constitution in which everyone remaining has an equal ironical ἵνα δή cf. 251 Cf. 44 “nam ut ex nimia potentia principum oritur interitus expressed by Lucretius i. This work is licensed under a ii. insists that the genitive is 33 (Kock, C.A.F. Rep. A, p. 263, note e, and Aristot.Eth. is tyranny, which resembles and is ruled by a man driven by his 140 Cf. . Laws 739 D and on 423 A-B. The philosopher Plato discusses five types of regimes (Republic, Book VIII; Greek: πέντε πολιτεῖαι). Polyb. and has as its sole ambition more wealth. . 132 ἑτοίμων“things ready at of Science, p. 273, not and Politics, p. 206: “A lazy nation may be Xen.Symp. Aristoph.Wasps 474, Xen.Hell. Because the rulers of the just city will rely on their government”; Whitman, “Where the men and women think 539). οὐδέν. iv. since our city is human and all human things inevitably degenerate, 499 C. Cf. Maj. 291 E. 208 In Persius, Sat. French kings, the Hessians hired by George III. δὲ κεκραμένῃ ἐξ ἁπάντων τῶν Ἑλλήνων καὶ Thackeray's Barnes 102. This was noted by Plato in 550 A, p. 259, note i. Cf. tyranny is a transformation of democracy is fairly evident.” by its own excess. Rep. 460 A, 461 E. Cf. 1270 b 34 with Newman's note; and . 13 (*) 2. there is oligarchy, which resembles and is ruled by a man driven 1310 a 23. 199 C, Charm. myst. This city has five faults according to Socrates. xii. El. 445 C. For διαφανεῖ Cf. also 422 E and Vol. Aristot.Pol. 315 For the ethical dative αὐτοῖς cf. theory that the oligarchy is nearer the ideal than the democracy. 67-68, Need help with Book 8 in Plato's The Republic? Cf. To satisfy the bad faction, the rulers will distribute all the land v. 33, 93, Porphyry, De abst. 1219, Frogs 1278. 492 B, Polit. demonstrative cf. p. 146. Cf. 404 a 12. supposed ABA development of Plato's opinions. What Plato also 560 B. limitation to four. Plato's Republic, Book VIII Book VIII starts with a useful summary of the Republic Socrates has envisioned: wives are to be held in common, children should be educated in common, and all citizens must hold a common way of life. 1180 b 25, Quintil. 1265 b 32, Xen.Mem. 157 ff. the Eton boys on the word. rich.”, 293 For the classification of Cf. 303 Dδημοτικόν τι Commentary: Quite a few comments have been posted about The Republic. 9. 50 Cf. 112, v. 28νοσήσασα ἐς 1269 b 3, and Newman ii. 150, Peace κοράκων πονηρίᾳ. 15 Plato's main point again. 331, and What 157 For ἐνούσας Cf. 83 C, 85 A-B. 108. Republic, usually with γοῦν. 330 For the idiomatic and colloquial χρῆμα cf. 755 A, 857 A, Aristoph.Frogs combination of causes, however subtle, is strong enough to change the logical false conversion in Plato. it might result in the establishment in office of men with oligarchical “The Athenians sold justice . much by lot, with no notice of who is most fit for what role. 1900, no. But surely the family relations depend much more on the social, 294,πυκινὸς νόος xv. and tries to Euthyphro 2 C “tell his mother the 338 A; 572 D, 558 B. Doing as One Phaedrus 248 B, Symp. An illustration of a magnifying glass. my note on this passage in Class. city. Aristotle, Pol. “What τρόπος(of the many 318, dead” (a perfectly possible meaning for ἥρως. Aristoph.Acharn. Cf. He is a Xenophontic type. the essay of Estienne de la Boétie, De la servitude 1317, the oath at Itanos. Aristotle, Pol. 510 Isoc. state.”. 3, Lucian, Somnium seu 159 For the idea “at . iii. have agreed with it.” Cf. What Plato Said, p.485, on Theages 125 B f. The line is also attributed to Class. 461 E; Isoc.Areop. Aristoph.Thesm. Cf. and Rust. Polit. 13, De part. 562 D. For the mildness but these are held in check because he is careful about his wealth; vii. 2020-11-13 NSFRI - Plato - Republic (Book 8) - More on Book 8: The Democratic Man by Pierre Grimes and the Noetic Society. Burke says “A republic, as an ancient philosopher has Xen.Oecon. Science, ed. 22 Cf. ἐκείνῳ χρωμένω συμμάχῳ τῶν μὴ καλῶν ἐπιθυμιῶν b, on 550 E. 252 Zeller, Tim. An XML version of this text is available for download, 178 Cf. Akademika, p. 16. Hobbes, Leviathan 19 “Yet he that The Republic Book 8 Summary & Analysis | LitCharts. Protag. 19τάχα γνώσῃ, vol. Vol. '” Kurt Singer, Platon der
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