Food and agriculture are the largest consumers of water, requiring one hundred times more than we use for personal needs. Agr Water Manage 147:82–95, WBCSD (2014) Water, food and energy nexus challenges. UN-Water. University Press, Cambridge, pp 205–234, Moreda GP, Muñoz-García MA, Barreiro P (2016) High voltage electrification of tractor and agricultural machinery – a review. Too much water is used for livestock production, making American meat consumption unsustainable. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 5:617–624, Rosa RD, Paredes P, Rodrigues GC, Alves I, Fernando RM, Pereira LS, Allen RG (2012) Implementing the dual crop coefficient approach in interactive software. This site is also protected by an SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) certificate that’s been signed by the U.S. government. ... greater food insecurity, and threats to water and sanitation. Irrigated agriculture plays a key role in food production. Federal government websites always use a .gov or .mil domain. J Irrig Drain Eng 125(1):26–33, Tester M, Langridge P (2010) Breeding technologies to increase crop production in a changing world. Correspondence to Agriculture ~ Environmental Issues. Agricultural businesses that ruin the land, have chemical run-off in local water sources and inadvertently harm wildlife don’t help to sustain the business or the environment. Population growth, increasing demands for food, ever-growing competition for water, reduced supply reliability, climate change and climate uncertainty and droughts, decline in critical ecosystems services, competition for land use, changing regulatory environments, and less participatory water resources governance are contributing to increasing difficulties and challenges in water resource management for agriculture and food. Agric Water Manag 121:1–18, Ren X, Qu Z, Martins DS, Paredes P, Pereira LS (2016a) Daily reference evapotranspiration for hyper-arid to moist sub-humid climates in Inner Mongolia, China: I. Assessing temperature methods and spatial variability. Water footprint of food. 84% of people who don't have access to improved water, also live in rural areas, where they live principally through subsistence agriculture. Science 327:818. doi:10.1126/science.1183700, Tian F, Yang P, Hu H, Dai C (2016) Partitioning of cotton field evapotranspiration under mulched drip irrigation based on a dual crop coefficient model. Sound water and watershed management practices, such as modern conservation technologies, appropriate crop choices, and drought preparedness, can help farmers to: In order to address agricultural water quality and quantity issues, NIFA initiatives: Agriculture and Food Research Initiative - Sustainable Agricultural Systems, Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) Regional Host Institution, Agriculture and Food Research Initiative - Water for Food Production Systems Challenge Area, NIFA Impacts: Saving the Ogallala Aquifer, Supporting Farmers, Interdisciplinary Research Project on Water and Agriculture Launches Website, Wildfires Alter Stream Chemistry for Years, Maximize production while minimizing environmental degradation, Improve the quality of the nation’s surface water and groundwater resources, Investigate effectiveness of conservation practices that affect  watersheds on grazing lands, Develop mobile tools for improved water and watershed management, Help consumers understand the environmental impacts of water use, Develop water management solutions that link food, water, climate, energy, and environmental issues. Despite that, the underlying issues of agriculture faced globally are along the same lines. This wasteful use of water is drying out rivers, lakes and underground aquifers. In this section. Renew Sust Energ Rev 51:1132–1155, Santos C, Lorite IJ, Tasumi M, Allen RG, Fereres E (2008) Integrating satellite-based evapotranspiration with simulation models for irrigation management at the scheme level. Irrigation Sci 26:277–288, Shuttleworth WJ, Wallace JS (1985) Evaporation from sparse crops-an energy combination theory. Agr Water Manage 125:81–91, Matuszewska A, Owczuk M, Zamojska-Jaroszewicz A, Jakubiak-Lasocka J, Lasocki J, Orlinski P (2016) Evaluation of the biological methane potential of various feedstock for the production of biogas to supply agricultural tractors. FAO also issues the food price index, which is a measure of the monthly change in international prices of a basket of food commodities. An issue that’s just begun to come to light, at least for the general public, is sustainability. Q J Roy Meteor Soc 111:839–855, Šimŭnek J, van Genuchten MT, Šejna M (2016) Recent developments and applications of the HYDRUS computer software packages. PubAg: Articles However, the U.S. Department of Agriculture is building awareness about the fragility of this essential resource. These problems vary from small to big and are different for different countries all over the world. The problems of agriculture are many, but the article below discusses a few of the most influential ones that end up governing the agricultural sector widely. Water Resour Manag 26:2397–2419, Manjunatha AV, Anik AR, Speelman S, Nuppenau EA (2013) Impact of land fragmentation, farm size, land ownership and crop diversity on profit and efficiency of irrigated farms in India. Agriculture uses 70% of the world’s accessible freshwater, but some 60% of this is wasted due to leaky irrigation systems, inefficient application methods as well as the cultivation of crops that are too thirsty for the environment in which they are grown. Addressing the Challenges, Springer, Dordrecht, 382p, Pereira LS, Cordery I, Iacovides I (2012) Improved indicators of water use performance and productivity for sustainable water conservation and saving. Food & Water Watch mobilizes regular people to build political power to move bold & uncompromised solutions to the most pressing food, water, and climate problems of our time. Energ Convers Manage 125:309–319, Monteith JL (1965) Evaporation and Environment. Background and computational strategy. The food system includes the production, processing, distribution, marketing, affordability, and consumption of food. PubMed Google Scholar. Land Use Policy 31:397–405, Martinho VJPD (2016) Energy consumption across European Union farms: efficiency in terms of farming output and utilized agricultural area. Agr Water Manage 103:8–24, Rosa RD, Ramos TB, Pereira LS (2016) The dual kc approach to assess maize and sweet sorghum transpiration and soil evaporation under saline conditions: application of the SIMDualKc model. United Nations University, Dresden (https://flores.unu.edu/about-us/the-nexus-approach/), Valentine J, Clifton-Brown J, Hastings A, Robson P, Allison G, Smith P (2012) Food vs. fuel: the use of land for lignocellulosic ‘next generation’ energy crops that minimize competition with primary food production. Water is primarily used in forestry and fishery, agricultural production (in its entire agri-food supply chain) and is used to create and/or transfer energy in varying forms. 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