However, juveniles > 40 mm in length develop a “pseudo-ocellus”—a dark rounded spot near the rear lobe of the dorsal fin (, . Class : Actinopterygii 4. As aquarium petsGiven its potential size, a suitably large tank is required to maintain the common snakehead in captivity. It is unknown which parent guards the eggs more often. (Chaudhry, 2010). Chua; B—reproduced from, 20117 Phylum : Chordata 3. (War, et al., 2011; "Snakeheads (Pisces, Channidae) - A Biological Synopsis and Risk Assessment", 2004; Devaraj, 1975; Marimuthu, et al., 2001; Phen, et al., 2004; War, et al., 2011; Yaakob and Ali, 1992), Parental investment is an important part of spawning and reproduction in the striped snakehead. {"serverDuration": 1567, "requestCorrelationId": "a3c7092546beaacc"}, LSM4254 - Principles of Taxonomy and Systematics: Species Pages on the Biodiversity of Singapore,, - 2445--Species, - 2455--Species,,,,,,,,,,, January 27, 2017 living in the northern part of the Old World. It is thought that the Channoidei, which contains Channidae as the sole family, is closely related to the Percoidei and Anabantoidei. Phen, C., T. Thang, E. Baran, L. Vann. 180. 15(2): p. 22–23. Yeo, L.K. Conlu, P.V., Guide to Philippine flora and fauna, Vol IX of Fishes. 2013. At the time of writing, there is no published information on chromosome number for individuals found in Singapore. 1990, Singapore: Singapore Science Centre. ("Snakeheads (Pisces, Channidae) - A Biological Synopsis and Risk Assessment", 2004; Musikasinthorn, 2004; Phen, et al., 2004; War, et al., 2011), Channa striata occurs mainly in shallow freshwater habitats, typically at depths of 1-2 m, rarely below 10 meters. Davidson, A., Fish and fish dishes of Laos. Ali, Simple method for backyard production of snakehead (Channa striata Bloch) fry. Haruan - Striped Snakehead, Common Snakehead. (Figure 4). "Ganthostoma spinigerum" 15 Daryaganj, New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House. However, there are still various unknown factors concerning the genetic status of this species, and it's been suggested that the current species is actually a group of several species. Hamilton-Buchanan, F., An Account of the Fishes Found in the River Ganges and Its Branches. Map, photographs and illustrations by Kenny W.J. —exploitation of wild stocks of this species has largely stabilised, and demand is increasingly met by captive-bred fishes21 Figure 7: Morphometric measurements commonly used for diagnosing snakeheads (Illustration: Kenny W.J. Channa striata (Bloch, 1793). Revue d’Hydrobiolgie Tropicale, 1985. . Larvae of G. spinigerum infect copepods that are an important food source for juvenile snakeheads. April 04, 2014 URL: [cited 2015 1 Nov].Video 3. Landis, A., N. Lapointe, P. Angermeier. and L. Shapovalov, On the identity of. a wetland area that may be permanently or intermittently covered in water, often dominated by woody vegetation. Additional support has come from the Marisla Foundation, UM College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Museum of Zoology, and Information and Technology Services. [ a b c ] After 1 to 2 hours, the fertilized pale yellow eggs developed a black spot in the center, while the unfertilized eggs turned white. Ali, Simple method for backyard production of snakehead (. The male and female jumped frequently above the water surface and out of the breeding tank to estimated heights of 30 to 90cm. Figure by Li et al. Amilhat, E. and K. Lorenzen, Habitat use, migration pattern and population dynamics of chevron snakehead. This is supported by disparities in chromosome number between specimens from India (2n = 40) 33 Grants DRL 0089283, DRL 0628151, DUE 0633095, DRL 0918590, and DUE 1122742. , and thus should not be used as a character for delimiting the two genera. Species : C. striata 8. . 5 Amilhat, E. and K. Lorenzen, Habitat use, migration pattern and population dynamics of chevron snakehead Channa striata in a rainfed rice farming landscape. Lower jaw morphology also differs between the two species. ). Quick guide to snakeheads. Juan Wei. Senna, A., Sull’organe respiratoria soprobranchiale degli Afiocefalidi e sus semplificazione in Parophiocephalus subg. War, M., K. Altaff, M. Haniffa. Although the striped snakehead invests a great amount of care for their young when food becomes scarce the parents will eat their young in order to survive. Morphological and genetic differences between cultured and wild populations … Furthermore, it is noted that the young of the dwarf snakehead tend to take on their adult colouration earlier (Figure 4A)6 7. April 16, 2014 18: p. 267–280. g9Figure 9: A shoal of young common snakeheads near the shore of MacRitchie Reservoir, Singapore (Photo: Kenny W.J. Ng, H.H. 4 . Order : Perciformes 5. There are or were introduced populations on Oahu in Hawaii and on Madagascar, but according to the USGS report of 2004, the identification of these populations has been questioned, they may be or have been populations of Channa maculata, not Channa striata. Fishbase 2014 [cited 2015 9 Sep]; Available from: [ a b c d e f g h ] Moreover, lead, copper, zinc and iron and … Musikasinthorn, P. 2004. uses smells or other chemicals to communicate. Also in the study, one of the males placed in the tank with the female is exiled during courtship so that they are not disturbed. 28 Dorsal surface and flanks darker than ventral surface; dark, oblique striations present on dorsum. Accessed Sport Fishin.Asia 2009 [cited 2015 21 Nov]; Available from: . ; Ophiocephalus chena Hamilton-Buchanan, 182227 However, juveniles > 40 mm in length develop a “pseudo-ocellus”—a dark rounded spot near the rear lobe of the dorsal fin (Figure 8) This characteristic fades as the fish reaches adulthood9 Figure 14: Maximum-likelihood tree for the Channidae reconstructed using the ND2 gene and flanking sequences as characters. 5 "Beautiful leisurely Giant snakehead fish and fry" by David OKY YouTube Channel, 19 May 2014. Davison and H.C. Ho, Editors. Furthermore, the flesh of the common snakehead is said to have healing properties, supposedly aiding in post-surgical recovery [see2 [ a b c d e f ] … Spawning behaviour Spawning has been reported throughout most of the year, and peaks during periods of high rainfall . and A.B. Yeo, L.K. In part of the experiment the mating pair were given a hormone to induce mating. Snakeheads (Pisces, Channidae) - A Biological Synopsis and Risk Assessment. 26 species) and the African Parachanna (three species). Chua.Figures 4, 5 & 10. Species Fact Sheets 2015 [cited 2015 20 Aug]; Available from: Rahman, A.K.A., Freshwater Fishes of Bangladash. Feeding behaviourLike most other snakeheads, the common snakehead mainly hunts at night. To induce mating behaviors the fish were injected with hormones (pituitary extract HCG). 2008, Nature Society (Singapore): Singapore. It is likely that any large fish-eating predator in their habitats might prey on them, such as larger fish, birds, crocodilians, turtles, otters, etc. This cavity contains mucous membranes lined with a rich network of blood vessels to increase oxygen uptake. URL: [cited 21 Nov 2015]Video 2. Papers Commemorating the 40th Anniversary of the Department of Zoology, National University of Singapore, L.M. In addition, the common snakehead also possesses enlarged canine-like teeth which it uses to grip and tear prey, The common snakehead is an obligate air-breather—regular trips to the surface are needed to obtain atmospheric oxygen, , and it can “drown” if such access is denied, . It can be found in shallow (< 1 m), stationary/slow-flowing waters thick with bank vegetation (, . 33: p. 781–789. 1868: p. 254–281, 460–461. ("Snakeheads (Pisces, Channidae) - A Biological Synopsis and Risk Assessment", 2004; Marimuthu, et al., 2001), The striped snakehead reproduces up to two times per year, during the periods of the southwest and the northeast monsoon in flooded rivers and ponds. Monatsbericht der Akademie Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1868. Channa striata, the striped snakehead, is a species of snakehead fish. The fishes form a spawning embrace in which the male wraps around the female, fertilising the eggs as they are released, The common snakehead (along with other large snakehead species) is a favoured food fish in much of Southeast Asia, including Singapore, ]. They exhibit this activity by hitting the snout and the vent of the female frequently, while gametes are being released. 2011. It is also reported to have been introduced to South Korea and southeastern Russia. The striped snakehead ( Channa striata Bloch, 1793) is the top predator fish found in Lake Rawa Pening and other freshwaters. Test of albumin contents with spectrophotometry, BCG (Bromocresol green) as albumin reagent, BSA (Bovine serum … It is believed that consumption of the striped snakehead provides healing powers, because of its ability to live out of water for several days as long as their skin stays moist. Animal Diversity Web. If uncooked snakeheads are consumed by humans, the larvae will also survive and migrate through tissues. Channidae or Snake head fish Scientific name: Channa striata. However, females are on average larger than males . 1992. . The external morphology of the fish was described as follows (translated from Latin with assistance from Henrietta Woo):“Body elongated and striped, with head tapering to a point. ... could be used to discriminate between male and female sex of the fish describing variations in scale shape changes that are confined to specific body regions of fishandmark-based . (Video 3). Practical Fishkeeping 2010 [cited 2015 14 Nov]; Available from: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. Some populations migrate between permanent waters and flooded areas created by seasonal rains. Myers, G.S. 34 Ng, The systematics and ecology of snakeheads (Pisces: Channidae) in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Hydrobiologia, 1994. The body weight of Lim, Wild animals of Singapore. N. Monitore Zoologico Italiano, 1924. 53: p. 148–159. Sayer, M., J. Davenport. In some communities striped snakehead is also used for traditional medicinal purposes. ; Courtenay & Williams, 20042 202. Bonou, J.L., Révision systématique du genre Parachanna Teugels et Daget, 1984 (Pisces: Channidae). 12 An experiment by Yaakob and Ali (1992) observed the development of the striped snakehead in captivity. "Channa striata vs shrimp HD" by 69peterek YouTube Channel, 2 Jul 2013. found in the oriental region of the world. Wang, and K.K.P. Proceedings of the 29th Kasetsart University Annual Conference: Animal Science, Veterinary Science, and Aquaculture: Bangkok, Thailand, 1991: p. 561–574. Haruan - Striped Snakehead, Common Snakehead, Channa Striata. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria. 1822, Edinburgh and London. , and it can “drown” if such access is denied13 Specimens range from 7.3 - 17.2 cm in length with body weight 8 - 31 g; sex ratio between males and females The common snakehead has a wide natural distribution ranging from tropical Southern Asia to most of Southeast Asia 1 22 Chua), The common snakehead can reach a maximum size of 90 cm (standard length; see Figure 7) and weigh up to 3 kg2 11 at 2 It is said to respond well to both baits and lures18 Figure 12: Blotched snakehead in an aquarium shop in Singapore (Photo: Kenny W.J. is especially evident from the spawning embrace behaviour exhibited by species in both groups 6 Spawning can be induced by sudden increases in water level to simulate the effects of heavy rain, or by injection of human chorionic gonadotropic hormone, . ). Photograph by Cai Yixiong.Figure 11. 1990, Department of Zoology, National University of Singapore: Singapore. Williams, Channa striata (Bloch, 1793): chevron snakehead, in Snakeheads (Pisces, Channidae)—A Biological Synopsis and Risk Assessment. [ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x ] xxix+531. Banded snakehead, chevron snakehead, common snakehead, snakehead murrel, ikan aruan, haruan, ruan, toman paya, sheng yu, etc. Ng, P.K.L. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 48/4: 409-411. ("Snakeheads (Pisces, Channidae) - A Biological Synopsis and Risk Assessment", 2004), Despite the economic importance of the striped snakehead as a source of food consuming the fish can be risky. Therefore, the von Bertalanffy formula growth curve patterns of the snakehead was Lt = 56.09 (1 − e − 0.81 (t + 0.07)) for female, (Lt = 59.36 (1 − e − 0.71 (t + 0.09)) for male, and Lt = 60.32 (1 − e − 0.71 (t + 0.14)) for mixed, with the female possessing a higher growth coefficient but a shorter length asymptote. Channa lucius. National Science Foundation Lacépède, B.G., Notice historique sur la vie et les ouvrages de Dolomieu. Figure 1. 2004. 2007. 2010 [cited 2015 9 September]; Available from: [ a b c d e ] 9 (After Integrated Taxonomic Information System24 To evaluate the Effect of Snakehead Fish (Channa striata) Extract Capsule to the Albumin Serum Level of Post-operative Neurosurgery Patients. 10 URL: [cited 2015 1 Nov].Video 4. p. 190–193. 202. 4 Rancangan and J.G. Channa argus. p. 136–151. Ikan Gabus (Channa striata) merupakan jenis ikan perairan umum yang bernilai ekonomis dengan jumlah hasil tangkapan yang melimpah. However, as with other large fishes, efficient filtration and regular water changes are required to minimise buildup of waste products. Chua), Video 3: A pair of giant snakeheads (Channa micropeltis) guarding their brood—the common snakehead behaves similarly (Video: YouTube user David OKY). 16 Chou and P.K.L. 3 Although there are no published reports on mating behaviors in the wild, the mating behaviors of this species were observed in a captive study by Marimuthu et al. 10 (Reproduced from Li et al., 200632 This is especially pertinent because the common snakehead is frequently transported for aquaculture—this could unwittingly allow as-yet unrecognised members of this species complex to hybridise, causing erosion of genetic identity. 30 Penang, Malaysia: WorldFish Center. L such as relative warp analysis was applied to validate the use of truss network system. Integrated Taxonomic Information System 2015 [cited 2015 1 Sep]; Available from: Bloch, M.E. Although established populations of the common snakehead were reported from Madagascar and Hawaii, these reports have found to be attributed to erroneous identification of the blotched snakehead (Channa maculata) 2 Its relatively drab colouration allows the animal to camouflage amongst aquatic vegetation and debris6 495. Scientific Name : Channa striata . Yaakob, W., A. Ali. p. 190–193. , allowing the fish to tolerate poorly oxygenated waters. Dorsal and anal spines absent; dorsal soft rays 38–43; anal soft rays 23–2710 Correspondingly, the species epithet was changed from the masculine striatus to the feminine striata. Only in the stomach of one of these mammal species can the worm mature and reproduce. Ray-Chaudhuri, Chromosome numbers, genome sizes, cell volumes and evolution of snake-head family (family Channidae). Hydrobiologia, 661: 123-131. In captivity, as soon as the male bends its body close to the female during mating, milt is released following the release of the eggs (Ref. The female striped snakehead is larger than the male. Donsakul, T. and W. Magtoon, Chromosome study on five species of channid fishes [. 9 ; Ophicephalus planiceps Cuvier, 183128 and P.K.L. 18 "Channa striata" This is probably attributable to its general hardiness, enabling to survive in even highly modified aquatic habitats. Sexes of the Snakehead Fish Channa striata. Accessed The larval nematodes survive consumption by the fish, and encyst in fish tissues, particularly muscles. SynonymsOphicephalus striatus Bloch, 179325 Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 1/2: 159-181. [ a b c d e f g h i j k l m ] Wang, View from the top, in Private Lives: An Exposé of Singapore's Freshwaters, D.C.J. Postorbital head length 28.6–37.2%; interorbital width 5.1–8.9%; preopercular length 6.2–26.4%; pelvic-anal distance 3.5–8.8%; caudal length 11.9–23.3% (measurements in percentage of standard length)3 While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. .Video 1. 1 Lim, Editors. . They tend to be highly territorial and aggressive towards most fishes, so tankmates are generally not recommended. Postorbital head length 28.6–37.2%; interorbital width 5.1–8.9%; preopercular length 6.2–26.4%; pelvic-anal distance 3.5–8.8%; caudal length 11.9–23.3% (measurements in percentage of standard length), for a detailed account of the taxonomic history of the genus). Both male and female parents protect juveniles from predators by hanging around them always. ("Snakeheads (Pisces, Channidae) - A Biological Synopsis and Risk Assessment", 2004), Channa striata is host to a number of parasite species. Journal of Fish Biology, 1988. Ikan Gabus mengandung protein lebih tinggi . Unlike some forest-dwelling snakehead species in Singapore. 45162). As such, the common snakehead can also be found in artificial habitats such as ponds, canals, padi fields, Although the exact colour may vary, the live adult common snakehead can be distinguished from most other adult snakeheads by its relatively plain colour pattern, lacking distinct spots or blotches, . and K.K.P. Conlu, P.V., Guide to Philippine flora and fauna, Vol IX of Fishes. defends an area within the home range, occupied by a single animals or group of animals of the same species and held through overt defense, display, or advertisement. Lim, Snakeheads (Pisces: Channidae): natural history, biology and economic importance, in Essays in Zoology. Lim, Editors. Correspondingly, the species epithet was changed from the masculine. The higher values of GSI appeared from March to July for male and April to July for female. Furthermore, fisheries stocks in heavily fished open waters are supplemented by fishes migrating from shallow-water habitats, where they are not as heavily fished22 77: p. 1–13. and K.K.P. Yaakob, W.A.A.W. (On-line). Species in the family Channidae have relatively wide heads with large scales that have been compared to that of snakes, which is why they were given their name "snakeheads." 9 5. No specific information could be found on species that prey on striped snakehead except for humans Homo sapiens. The striped snakehead Channa striata is a predatory fish whose life cycle still holds many mysteries. Habitat use, migration pattern and population dynamics of chevron snakehead Channa striata in rainfed rice farming landscape. In parts of Southeast Asia where it is not native (i.e., the Philippines, Sulawesi, and Papua), it has established as an alien species following introduction as a food fish. , and thus should not be used as a character for delimiting the two genera. Peters, W.C.H., Über die von Herrn Dr F. Jagor in dem ostindischen Archipel gesammelten Fische. These fish are capable of limited movement overland by the use of a wriggling motion, which they use to disperse to new bodies of water on rainy nights. 285: p. 59–74. After mating, the females lay their eggs and the eggs are fertilized by the males. male; female; Lifespan/Longevity. Accessed Notes on the bionomics, breeding, and growth of the murrel, Ophicephalus striatus bloch. Practical Fishkeeping 2010 [cited 2015 14 Nov]; Available from: 20 Insight into age and growth of northern snakehead in Potomac River. In other words, India and southeast Asia. . Gainesville, Florida: Florida Integrated Science Center. , the common snakehead is not listed on the Singapore Red Data Book, likely indicating that this highly adaptable species is not locally threatened. The larvae of most species have orange/red and black longitudinal bands that fade as the fish matures. Species complexThe wide-ranging native distribution of Channa striata suggests that it might be a species complex2 Vol. Pethiyagoda, R., 1991. … Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 2004. . One of special concern is the nematode Gnathostoma spinigerum. Disclaimer: Figure 8: Juvenile common snakehead with pseudo-ocellus on rear of dorsal fin (circled) (Photo: Cai Yixiong, used with permission; annotation added by Kenny W.J. 1992. . This cavity contains mucous membranes lined with a rich network of blood vessels to increase oxygen uptake6 The eggs are said to float at the surface, kept within the circle and fiercely guarded by the male. (Figure 14). both male and female construct a nest of vegetation in a roundish area in shallow water. 495. Notes 5 . (Figure 10). Cephalic shields large and distinct; sides of lower jaw parallel or converging6 . 1251. Female and male average lengths were 36.6 cm and 33.0 cm, respectively, ranging over the intervals from 24.2 to 64.8 cm and 23.4 to 64.6 cm, respectively. Figure 13: Bloch's original description of, . (Video 2). This page was authored by Kenny Chua Wei Jie. having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. Yeo, D.C.J., K.K.P. Fish and Wildlife Service. Amilhat, E., K. Lorenzen. Cuvier, G. and A. Valenciennes, Histoire Naturelles des Poissons. 180. . 15 The striped snakehead can reach lengths up to 90cm and up to 3 kg - growth studies report they reach an average body mass is reported as 60g by 12 weeks past the fingerling stage. Lim, K.K.P., Fins and scales, in Private Lives: An Exposé of Singapore's Freshwaters, D.C.J. Additionally, 3 body length ratios (head length, Courtenay, W., J. Williams, R. Britz, M. Yamamoto, P. Loiselle. Chaudhry, S. 2010. This material is based upon work supported by the The fry are fed a blended mixture of trash fish and rice bran until they reach a mass of 0.7–1.0 kg in seven to ten months, upon which they are harvested. It is found from the Indus drainage in Pakistan east through India, Sri Lanka, southern Nepal, possibly Bhutan, Bangladesh, southern China, and all the nations of southeast Asia. Invasive species program-snakeheads, aquatic invaders. 285: p. 59–74. The sexes are distinguished by using secondary sexual characteristics during the spawning season. The Spawning behaviourSpawning has been reported throughout most of the year, and peaks during periods of high rainfall2 . snakehead (Channa striata) has been invading Taiwan for over 30 years, and it is currently widely distributed across diverse aquatic habitats within the island. . Contributor Galleries Papers Commemorating the 40th Anniversary of the Department of Zoology, National University of Singapore, L.M. 2004. Channa striata (Bloch, 1793). ; Ophicephalus sowarah Bleeker, 1845; Ophiocephalus cyanospilos Bleeker, 1853; Ophiocephalus vagus Peters, 186829 Rahman, A.K.A., Freshwater Fishes of Bangladash. . 26 The ORF of AChE is comprised of 338 nucleotides (GenBank accession number JX190065.1), showing significant nucleotide similarity 88.2% and 83.4% respectively with Channa striata male cerebrum and 7 Within the genus Channa are several monophyletic clades. "Channa Anglers Common Snakehead Haruan Gabus Fishing Channa Striata" by Channa Anglers YouTube Channel, 24 Aug 2014. Journal of Fish Biology, 40: 497-502. Studies of the related species Channa argus (northern snakehead) report lifespans in the wild to be 7 years or more.