When sentinel pupae were slightly buried, predators removed 61% of pupae in strawberry, 91% in blueberry, and 67% of pupae in blackberry fields in Oregon (Woltz and Lee 2017). For example, 1,000 D. coriaria rove beetles currently cost US$75, costing $750/ha ($304/acre) to release 1 beetle per 1 m3 (Evergreen Growers Supply 2019). Fourth, spotted-wing drosophila takes several days to die from fungal infection, and it would be ideal if infection prevented females from laying eggs before they died. 2018a,b; Wang et al. Promising results were seen for control of ground-dwelling pests in nursery systems (Bennison et al. 2017). 2018). Explorations in South Korea, China, and Japan have discovered at least 13 larval-pupal parasitoids associated with spotted-wing drosophila (Supp Appendix [online only]; Fig. The majority of organically approved insecticides are selective for pests with lower risk to beneficial insects, but this is not always the case (Biondi et al. We’ll do our best to translate this to English in the future. Unlike most other Drosophila species D. suzukii oviposits and feeds on healthy fruits [6]. This will have the added benefit of improving the spray coverage. Renkema, J. M., and A. G. S. Cuthbertson. Orius is a predator found on plants, and positive results with Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) were obtained in the lab (Renkema and Cuthbertson 2018), but no differences were observed in field trials (Woltz et al. The only natural enemy that did have an effect on the development of the Drosophila population was the parasitic wasp. Atallah, J., L. Teixeira, R. Salazar, G. Zaragoza, and A. Kopp. If he or she plants an early maturing variety, such as Bluecrop, Draper, or Duke, the fruit will mature in early July – before the SWD starts attacking crops in the area. Raspberry, blackberry, and blueberry growers are limited to six applications per year, while strawberry growers can make five applications. Spinosad is highly recommended. aResidual impact tested by spraying fruit or foliage and then allowing adults access to them in arenas. 2015). Originally from Asia, spotted-wing drosophila has invaded North and South America and Europe, causing significant economic damage. Currently, the rove beetle Dalotia coriaria Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) (also called Atheta coriaria), Orius bugs, and the predatory mite Strateolaelaps scimitus (Wormersley) (Acari: Laelapidae) (also called Hypoaspis miles) are available for purchase. In field trials where predators forage on infested fruit, spotted-wing drosophila larval infestations decrease by 19–34% in strawberries, and 28–49% in blueberries (Woltz and Lee 2017). Integrated fruit production and pest management in Europe: the apple case study and how far we are from the original concept? The insect resembles common vinegar flies in the genus Drosophila. Also, the flies can complete their life cycle in as little as 10 days under ideal conditions. 2018), and in unmanaged areas surrounding crops to reduce the severity of pest outbreaks (Rossi Stacconi et al. Hamby, K. A., D. E. Bellamy, J. C. Chiu, J. C. Lee, V. M. Walton, N. G. Wiman, R. M. York, and A. Biondi. This strategy is especially important for organic fruit production. Cuthbertson, A. G., L. F. Blackburn, and N. Audsley. COPYRIGHT © 2020 ASK THE EXPERTS LLC. The content of the bottle is poured into the ECONEX BOTTLE TRAP DS, which –after that– must be hanged in an appropriate place, in order to capture Drosophila suzukii. Drosophila suzukii has a rapid life cycle and the larvae develop well beneath the fruit surface. While not explicitly tested, the age of the female may affect susceptibility. israeliensis preparations killed 48–85% of adults in lab trials, but placing adults directly on dried residue was not lethal (Cahenzli et al. Scale outbreaks on stems of blueberry bushes sprayed for spotted-wing drosophila control, photo by B. Shaw, B., P. Brain, H. Wijnen, and M. T. Fountain. 2015). This Open Access article contains public sector information licensed under the Open Government Licence v2.0 (, A Review of the Biology, Ecology, and Management of Plum Curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), What Do They Know and What Do They DO? Lanouette, G., J. Brodeur, F. Fournier, V. Martel, M. Vreysen, C. Cáceres, and A. Firlej. A number of brands that contained spinosad as the active ingredient were highly effective, including formulations of Bonide Captain Jack’s Deadbug Brew that are available via Arbico Organics. If you do find larvae, it’s possible that they are from some other kind of insect. Beers, E. H., R. A. Use a 10-30X magnifying glass to look for the serrated ovipositor of the SWD females. 2018a; Giorgini et al. Both studies have shown that inoculated flies can cross-infect the opposite sex in confined arenas. You don’t want to kill the pollinators. This approach is known as Phenology Management. Girod, P., O. Lierhmann, T. Urvois, T. C. J. Turlings, M. Kenis, and T. Haye. Susceptibility of muscoid fly parasitoids to insecticides used in dairy facilities, Biocontrol of arthropods affecting livestock and poultry, Westview Press, The University of Michigan, Environmentally sustainable pest control options for, Entomopathogenic fungi as biological control agents, Seasonal cues induce phenotypic plasticity of. Immediately place your fruit at 34-36 F. This will slow or stop any larvae or eggs in the fruit from developing. Dr. Kirkpatrick found the flies were much more strongly attracted to red sphere and red panel traps baited with Scentry lure (a specialized attractant for fruit flies). One of them, the melanogaster species group, also contains the famous “workhorse” of experimental biology and genetics, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen. Although it is a native species of Asia (China, Japan, Korea and Thailand), the world trade in fruits has helped its spread around the world. Carabid beetles, crickets, green lacewing larvae, earwigs, and Orius have been found among infested fruits, and they also fed on spotted-wing drosophila in the lab, which suggest that they could be predators in those systems (Arno et al. In addition to pathogenic bacteria, endosymbiotic bacteria such as Wolbachia can affect spotted-wing drosophila reproduction positively or negatively. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2019. Diagram of spotted-wing drosophila life cycle and spatial distribution (a), and potential targets for biological control in the field (b).