Kimura MT. Spotted wing drosophila female feeding on water droplet (E. Beers, December 2010) The spotted wing drosophila is an invasive pest from Asia, first discovered in California in 2008. 0000015659 00000 n This species is included in the EPPO A2 List as recommended to be included amongst the species in phytosanitary quarantine. The insect resembles common vinegar flies in the genus Drosophila. Infested fruit collapse around the feeding site very rapidly and rot due to mold or secondary infections (Beers et al. Within Europe, this species is also widely distributed in France, Italy and Spain (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization 2010). Degree-day models on Drosophila suzukii suggest that the entire life cycle (egg to egg laying female) can be completed within 12 to 15 days at 18.3°C (65°F) or a little more than a week at 21.1°C (70°F) (Walsh et al. However, sensitivity to desiccation depends upon climatic conditions and flies could develop desiccation resistance over time (Davidson 1990, Bradley et al. Simple funnel trap baited with vinegar to trap adult Drosophila. hÞb```b`àxÀÀÆÀÀ?‹Abì,G&¹(¨0ù&¨ã$`–.,á*9Åêè†ÅB u³R§Eߞ€ðq™D4éPŠx}ƒ®¥Þ›ƒÕfÍΑ Tç¸Äå®T„Á. (February 2010). larvae. A large number of Drosophila species are known from Australia and many Drosophila species have larvae that are commonly found in rotting fruit. 2011). It attacks a range of soft skinned fruit and reduces crop yield and quality through direct feeding damage and secondary infection of the fruit. 0000010598 00000 n 0000016136 00000 n Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine larval movement of the spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii Matsumura).Movement of larvae outside of the wild blueberry fruit (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) can occur after exhausting fruit food resources pri- or to completion of development or just prior to pupation.We found that when provided a choice larvae select moist … D. suzukii, originally from southeast Asia, is becoming a ma Larvae of Drosophila spp. 0000131471 00000 n Monitor adult fly populations before fruit begin ripening and before flies begin laying eggs. Drosophila suzukii performance metrics of the number of eggs, larvae, and emerged adults were expressed per gram of fruit to standardize the results and account for different masses of cultivars at different developmental stages. 0000004733 00000 n Nonparallel geographic patterns for tolerance to cold and desiccation in, De Camargo R, Phaff HJ. The larvae may pupate ... Drosophila suzukii . Therefore, expert examination by a specialist is needed for positive identification and confirmation (Steck et al. Insecticide sprays effective against other Drosophila flies are also effective against Drosophila suzukii adults. Genetics 162: 1-3. 0000010182 00000 n However, true fruit flies belong to the family Tephritidae. 0000081382 00000 n Drosophila flies are sometimes called small fruit flies. Figure 1. Yeasts occurring in, Dubuffet A, Colinet D, Anselme C, Dupas S, Carton Y, Poirié M. 2009. Drosophila or pomace flies are small insects commonly found in association with over-ripened or rotten fruits and vegetables. 0000132315 00000 n 0000009708 00000 n Agriculture and Resource Economics Update. Adults are able to withstand longer periods of cold conditions than larvae or pupae (Walsh et al. Mitsui H, Achterberg VK, Nordlander G, Kimura MT. Figure 7. Spotless males are also possible, but are rarely observed in the field. The antennae are short and stubby with branched arista. Journal fur Kulturpflanzen, 64:68-72 0000008583 00000 n (Kanzawa 1939, Dubuffett et al. 0000007566 00000 n Spotted wing drosophila: Potential economic impact of a newly established pest. 2011). However, Drosophila suzukii is firmly established on the island of Hokkaido in Japan where winters average -4 to -12°C (Kimura 2004), suggesting the possibility of its establishment in cooler climates. Geographical distributions and host associations of larval parasitoids of frugivorous, Molina JJ, Harisson MD, Brewer JW. The spotted wing Drosophila is a vinegar fly originating from South-East Asia which has invaded many countries in America, Asia and Europe. 0000002521 00000 n Drosophila (/ d r ə ˈ s ɒ f ɪ l ə, d r ɒ-, d r oʊ-/) is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit. 0000132954 00000 n 2011). A number such as Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea, Metarhiziumanisopliae and Lecanicillium lecanii ensure a death rate of more than 50% among fruit flies11,20. Figure 9. 0000030385 00000 n The Tomakomai Experiment Forest, Hokkaido University. Figure 5. The body is tapered anteriorly with elevated posterior spiracles. 0000059494 00000 n 44: 611-632. The traps perform best when deployed under cool and shady areas in the field (Walsh et al. The vast majority of Drosophila flies are associated with rotten or over-ripened fruits and are nuisance pests. 2011). Eggs: The eggs are translucent, milky-white, and glossy. These fruits are full of yeasts and have a high protein content.The larvae then develop and grow on a proteinic diet. 0000079049 00000 n 0000007900 00000 n Photograph by Martin Hauser, California Department of Food and Agriculture. Photograph by Martin Hauser, California Department of Food and Agriculture. Microorganisms play a central role in the biology of vinegar flies such as Drosophila suzukii and Drosophila melanogaster: serving as a food source to both adults and larvae, and influencing a range of traits including nutrition, behavior, and development. 0000132588 00000 n Figure 11. 0000009191 00000 n The adults have a pale brown or yellowish-brown thorax with black bands on the abdomen. 2009). Activity becomes reduced at temperatures above 30°C (86°F) or below freezing. Further inquiry, including systematic comparisons of Drosophila larval yeast associations more broadly, will be necessary to understand patterns of microbial resource use in larvae of D. suzukii and other frugivorous species. 0000005639 00000 n Physiological responses to selection for desiccation resistance in, Bolda MP, Goodhue RE, Zalom FG. 0000132166 00000 n SEM of genitalia of an adult male spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophilia suzukii (Matsumura). 1988. Spotted wing drosophila. 0000053321 00000 n 0000123991 00000 n Green MM. 0000111668 00000 n In this project we are focusing on finding natural enemies (parasitoids) of the pest to introduce into Europe. (Drosophila suzukii: eine neue bedrohung fur den Europaischen obst- und weinbau - bericht uber eine internationale tagung in trient, 2, Dezember 2011.) 0000006649 00000 n 0000012163 00000 n 2006, Walsh et al. Photograph by Martin Hauser, California Department of Food and Agriculture. However, a few species such as the spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), can infest un-ripened fruits and are of economic significance. 0000016606 00000 n Therefore, all nearby sources of fruit should be managed to eliminate flies (Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, British Columbia 2009). Variation of. Photograph by Martin Hauser, California Department of Food and Agriculture. Figure 6. Title: Antifungal properties of spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) larvae. Pupae of Drosophila spp. Addition of a small drop of dish soap as a surfactant or placement of a sticky card within the traps improves trap efficiency by retaining the flies which have already entered the traps. It really is not a fruit fly. Males have dark spots on the wingtips and black combs on the forelegs. Monitoring and trapping. Drosophila suzukii has a wide host range, including: The following hard fruits may be attacked if the skin is already broken: Fruit infestation is initially manifested by scars on the fruit surface left by ovipositing females (stinging). Ovipositor of an adult female spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophilia suzukii (Matsumura), lateral view. Under conditions favorable to the SWD, the fruit begin to collapse as quickly as two days after the eggs were laid. Photograph by Martin Hauser, California Department of Food and Agriculture. Photograph by Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Drosophila suzukii prefers a moderate climate but can also survive in cold conditions (Kanzawa 1939). Spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is a fruit fly first found in 2008 damaging fruit in many California counties.It infests ripening cherries throughout the state and ripening raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, and strawberry crops, especially in coastal areas. The females have a serrated ovipositor with which they penetrate the fruit skin. Photograph by Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Although the major damages are caused by the larvae that soften the cherry by making not marketable s. Although up to 65 adults have been found in the same cherry, only the presence of one of them causes appreciable damage to the fruit. Larvae: The larvae are milky-white and cylindrical with black mouthparts. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, British Columbia. Adaptations to temperate climates and evolution of over-wintering strategies in the. 0000018524 00000 n 0000003678 00000 n Molecular analysis of the larvae confir-med that larvae belong to the Drosophila suzukii. 0000019620 00000 n Figure 12. Drosophila suzukii (Spotted Wing) Description SWD is a small fly (2 to 3 mm) with bright red eyes, a pale brown thorax, and an abdomen with black horizontal stripes. The total life cycle may be completed within one to two weeks depending upon the climatic conditions (Kanzawa 1939). 0000132689 00000 n Oviposition scars from a female spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophilia suzukii (Matsumura), on a cherry fruit. STD W DSL: Drosophila. It was discovered in western Washington, Oregon and British Columbia in 2009, and in eastern Washington in June of 2010. Bradley TJ, Williams AE, Rose MR. 1999. Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive pest of soft- and stone-fruit, which has become established throughout temperate regions of the world in the last decade. Photograph by Martin Hauser, California Department of Food and Agriculture. Multiple clutches of larvae may be present on the same fruit because females may oviposit on the same fruit (Kanzawa 1939, Mitsui et al. 0000131844 00000 n The SWD flies have brownish-yellow thorax, black stripes across the abdomen, and distinct red eyes. including Drosophila melanogaster. 0000131567 00000 n Small white larvae hatch from eggs within a few days and feed inside the fruit, causing it to soften and collapse around the feeding site. 2009, Walsh et al. The flies are most active at 20°C (68°F). 0000131748 00000 n Biological control. 2010). 2011). on overripe banana. Abstract. %PDF-1.7 %âãÏÓ 0000131050 00000 n 0000132862 00000 n 0000013215 00000 n Steck GJ, Dixon W, Dean D. (August 2009). Since then, it has rapidly spread to new areas including Florida, Louisiana, Michigan, North Carolina, Oregon, South Carolina, Utah, Washington and Wisconsin in the U.S., and British Columbia in Canada (Walsh et al. Not only are they larger, but they are common and often important agricultural pests (Green 2002). Cultural control. Internal organs of larvae are visible after it has consumed some fruit. They have two dark “mouth hooks” at the front. However, traps baited with yeast-sugar-water mixtures facilitate easy identification of flies because of the clear color of the bait material. 0000041420 00000 n Adult life span is about three to nine weeks. Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), a fruit fly from East Asia, is now a serious economic pest of soft fruits and berries across Europe, the Americas and North Africa.